Pyramid of Interventions

Attention Interventions

_____ Make certain student’s hearing has recently been checked.
_____ Seat the student close to the source of sound.
_____ Stand directly in front of the student when delivering information.
_____ Make certain the student is attending (e.g., making eye contact, hands free of materials, etc.) before delivering directions, instructions, or explanations.
_____ Maintain visibility to and from the student at all times in order to ensure he/she is attending.
_____ Make certain that competing sounds (e.g., talking, movement, noise) are silenced when directions are being given.
_____ Stop at various points when delivering directions in order to ensure that the student is attending.
_____ Have the student verbally repeat information he/she hears.
_____ Seat the student far enough away from peers in order to ensure his/her ability to attend to sounds in the immediate environment successfully.
_____ Have a peer provide the student with the information he/she does not hear.
_____ Reduce visual distractions in the classroom.
_____ Use a study carrel (provide extra so student is not singled out).
_____ Seat student next to teacher, distance affects disinterest.
_____ Seat student away from windows and doorway.
_____ Look directly at a student and place hand on student’s shoulder when giving directions.
_____ Provide time suggestions for each task.
_____ Give shorter tests or quizzes, but more frequently.

Behavior Interventions

_____ Provide individualized rules for student as needed.
_____ Provide peer tutors
_____ Provide for a variety of activities during the class period.
_____ Reduce visual distractions in classroom.
_____ Provide computer for written work.
_____ Seat student close to teacher.
_____ Use study carrel (provide extra so student is not singled out).
_____ Keep extra classroom supplies on hand.
_____ Teach student appropriate hand signals which are used to tell students when and when not to talk.
_____ Make sure student is called on when it is appropriate.
_____ Reinforce listening.
_____ Provide a reward valued by student.
_____ Provide quiet alternatives for a short time.
_____ Provide a timer for short periods of work.
_____ Alert students several minutes before a transition from one activity to another is planned; give several reminders.
_____ Provide additional time to complete a task.
_____ Allow extra time to turn in homework without penalty.
_____ Have a sample organized page laminated for student to keep on desk; include heading, date, name, columns, sample paragraph form, etc.; on back list criteria: no single letters or numbers touching each other, all letters and numbers on the line, etc.
_____ Do not postpone reinforcement/grades-remember, he/she has a basically impulsive nature (he/she finds it difficult to wait until the end of the month to get a mark for his/her work).
_____ Write a behavior contract which is signed by teacher, parent, and student.
_____ Post 3-5 clearly and positively stated rules.
_____ Teach expected student behaviors directly.
_____ Reward expected behaviors regularly.
_____ Define problem behaviors clearly.
_____ Define consequences for problem behaviors clearly.
_____ Involve a behavior support team.
_____ Provide booster training for expected behaviors when necessary.
_____ Modify room arrangement so student can always be clearly seen by teacher.
_____ Inform parents of expected behaviors and consequences.
_____ Instruction and curriculum materials are matched to student ability.
_____ Students experience high rates of academic success (75%).
_____ Classroom routines are clearly taught and followed.
_____ Behavior is monitored and feedback is provided regularly to student, parent, and other relevant staff.

Cross-Curricular Interventions

_____ Provide a peer tutor.
_____ Give shorter tests or quizzes but more frequently.
_____ Have tests or quizzes read to the student.
_____ Have the student answer tests or quizzes orally.
_____ Have tests or quizzes tape-recorded and allow the student to listen to questions as often as necessary.
_____ Allow the student to take tests in a quiet place.
_____ Provide parent with information on test or quiz content.
_____ Reduce visual distractions in the classroom.
_____ Provide additional time to complete a task.
_____ Have a sample organized page laminated for student to keep on his/ her desk; include heading, date, name, columns, sample paragraph form, etc.
_____ Use both oral and printed directions.
_____ Give directions in small steps, and in as few words as possible. Leave pauses between each step so student can carry out process in his/her mind.
_____ Provide immediate feedback.
_____ Allow for shorter assignments. (Quality vs. Quantity)
_____ Provide a designated note-taker or Xerox copy of other student or teacher notes.
_____ Have the student repeat directions.
_____ Provide highlighted or color-coded materials.
_____ Allow the use of a tape recorder, word processor, calculator, and computer.
_____ Sequence work with easiest answers first.
_____ Provide a checklist of work to be completed or steps to follow in completing an assignment.
_____ Use graph paper to help space letters and numbers.
_____ Use computer software for reinforcement.
_____ Use a study carrel (provide extra so student is not singled out).
_____ Alternate spoken tasks with written and manipulative tasks.
_____ Show a model of the end product.
_____ Provide written backup to oral directions and lectures; use visuals via chalkboard, overhead, video, etc.
_____ Give cues to begin work.
_____ Provide all necessary materials.
_____ Introduce assignments carefully so student knows what is expected.
_____ Provide time suggestions for each task.
_____ Provide other sources of information: cassette tape, language master, photocopies of notes, interactive software, shared note-taking with peer.
_____ Check on progress often in the first few minutes of work.
_____ Provide advance organizers including outlines, study guides, preview questions, and vocabulary previews.
_____ Use a peer or peer tutor to get student started.
_____ Look directly at student and place hand on student’s shoulder when giving directions.
_____ Deliver a predetermined signal (e.g., clapping hands, turning lights off, etc.,) before giving verbal instructions.
_____ Make certain verbal directions are delivered in a supportive rather than a threatening manner (e.g., “Will you please…”, or “You need…”. Rather than “You better…” or “If you don’t…”).
_____ Make certain that directions are given at the level at which the student can be successful (e.g., two or three-step directions are not given to students who can only successfully follow one-step directions).
_____ Call the student by name prior to delivering oral questions and directions.
_____ Follow a less desirable task with a highly desirable task, making the completion of the first task necessary to perform the second one.
_____ Make certain that eye contact is being made when delivering oral questions and directions.
_____ Establish assignment rules (e.g., listen to directions, wait until all oral directions have been given, ask questions about anything you do not understand, begin the assignment only when you are sure of what you are supposed to do, make certain you have all the necessary materials).
_____ Draw the student’s attention to key aspects of visual images (e.g., highlight, outline, draw arrows, etc.)
_____ Provide the student with more than one exposure to visual information prior to requiring him/her to remember it.
_____ When a student is required to recall information, provide him/her with visual cues to help him/her remember the information previously presented (e.g., using key words printed on the chalkboard, exposing part or all of a picture).
_____ When the student is required to recall information, provide him/her auditory cues to help him/her remember information previously presented (e.g., say key words, give a brief oral description to clue the student).
_____ When the student is required to recall information, remind him/her of the situation in which the material was originally presented (e.g., say, “Remember yesterday when we talked about…”, “Remember when we were outside and we looked at the…”).
_____ Teach the student to learn sequences and lists of information in segments (e.g.,telephone numbers are learned as 314, then 442, then 7906, etc.).

Organization Interventions

_____ Ask the student why he/she is unprepared for assigned activities. The student may have the most accurate perception.
_____ Provide the student with a list of necessary materials for each activity of the day.
_____ Provide the student with verbal reminders of materials required for each activity.
_____ Provide the student with a written list of assignments to be performed each day and have him/her check each assignment as it is completed.
_____ Provide time at the beginning of each day for the student to organize his/her materials (e.g., before school, recess, lunch, end of the day).
_____ Specify exactly what is to be done for the completion of assignments (e.g., make definite starting and stopping points, determine a minimum requirement, etc.).
_____ Provide the student with structure for all academic activities (e.g., specific directions, routine format for tasks, time units, etc.).
_____ Have the student establish a routine to follow before coming to class (e.g., check which activity is next, determine what materials are necessary, collect materials, etc.).
_____ Have the student leave necessary materials at specified activity areas.
_____ Minimize materials needed.
_____ Provide the student with adequate time at school to prepare for assigned activities (e. g., supervised study time).

Reading Interventions

_____ Give direct instruction in sound/symbol relationships.
_____ Expose students to motivating, interesting, reading materials.
_____ Give frequent and sustained opportunities for student to read both aloud and to themselves.
_____ Practice recognizing and producing sounds.
_____ Practice emphasizing the sound structure of words.
_____ Use supplementary reading materials for students who fall behind expected levels.
_____ Use materials that student can read to himself/herself easily, along with more difficult material to be read with teacher.
_____ Assess students reading ability (both fluency and word recognition).
_____ Model reading and comprehension strategies.
_____ Give opportunities for student to build fluency through frequent practice reading different types of text such as newspapers, stories, reports, letters, and magazines.
_____ Set a purpose for reading.
_____ Teach student how to scan material before reading (e.g., SQ3R method).
_____ Use techniques to help student summarize frequently (e.g., Think, pair, share, one-sentence summaries, etc.)
_____ Teach students to make text-to-text, text-to-self, and text-to-world connections.
_____ Identify key terms before reading.
_____ Give a list of questions for student to answer mentally before reading a new section of text.
_____ Teach students to monitor their own understanding periodically.
_____ Make visual representations to help them understand text (e.g., charts, webs, and graphs.
_____ Provide individual or small-group instruction.
_____ Provide student with opportunities for repeated reading of passages to increase fluency.
_____ Give explicit instruction in skills not previously mastered.
_____ Use books that contain predictable vocabulary and sentence structure.
_____ Display metacognitive strategies in classroom.
_____ Allow student time to reflect on what was read.
_____ Ask student to make and test predictions.
_____ Help student to practice using contextual analysis for unfamiliar terms.
_____ Teach student how to identify organization and structure of text (e.g., cause/effect, sequential, order of importance, etc.).
_____ Help student to set a goal for reading (e.g., be able to explain author’s point of view, find the author’s purpose, differentiate fact/opinion, etc.).
_____ Use a before, during, and after reading graphic organizer to chart student comprehension.
_____ Ask student to make predictions about possible sentences using background knowledge.
_____ Help the student to rank main ideas in order of importance.
_____ Provide a peer who will read with the student.

Spelling Interventions

_____ Have the student indicate when he/she has learned one of the spelling words. As the student demonstrates he/she can spell the word, it is removed from the current spelling list.
_____ Have a list of the student’s current words taped to his/her desk with the requirement that they be practiced whenever the student has time.
_____ Reinforce the student for practicing the writing of the spelling words.
_____ Have the student highlight or underline his/her spelling words in passages from reading assignments, newspapers, magazines, etc.
_____ Develop crossword puzzles which contain only the student’s spelling words and have him/her complete them.
_____ Make a list of the words the student most commonly misspells. Keep a copy of the list of correctly spelled words at his/her desk to use as a reference when writing.
_____ Use wall charts showing word endings (e.g., -ed, -ing, -er, etc.) and sample words for the students to use as a reference when writing.
_____ Have the student practice any one spelling rule consistently until that rule is mastered (e.g., I before e except after c, etc.). When one rule is mastered, introduce a new one.
_____ Make certain the student knows what sounds letters make.
_____ Have the student practice making letter sounds as he/she sees the letters on flash cards.
_____ Teach words by spelling patterns (e.g., cake, bake, take, etc.) in one lesson.
_____ Have the students make flashcards and highlight the difficult parts of the word.
_____ Avoid penalizing for spelling errors. Instead, students earn points for each part of the word they spell correctly. (e.g., sh/a/r/e=4 points).
_____ Use spell checking software.
_____ Hang words from the ceiling during study time or post on the wall for constant visual clues.
_____ Provide a tactile, kinesthetic aid for spelling, (e.g., sandpaper letter to trace or a box filled with salt or cereal to write in).
_____ Avoid traditional spelling lists; instead determine lists from social needs and school area needs.
_____ Dictate work, then ask student to repeat it (saying it in sequence may eliminate errors of omitted syllables).
_____ Allow student to take tests orally.

Curriculum Modifcation

_____ Identify student’s reading level. If student is reading below level of texts being used in the classroom, provide a reading partner or tape record text.
_____ Teacher may also provide an organizer before assigning reading.
_____ Notify parents of upcoming reading assignments so they may work with students ahead of time.
_____ Provide an alternate source of information (e.g., video, teacher-prepared notes, books on topic at lower reading level, etc.).
_____ Do a skills checklist for each problem subject. Identify critical objectives and focus on those objectives which student has not yet mastered.
_____ Use differentiated instruction so all students may work at the appropriate level.
_____ Allow student to complete parts of assignments orally.
_____ Assign fewer questions which test only critical objectives.
_____ Allow the use of technology (e.g., computer, calculator, spell-checker, etc.)
_____ Provide additional time to complete assignments/tests.
_____ Use alternative forms of assessments (projects, demonstrations, etc.).
_____ Provide models of completed assignments.
_____ Set a grade/point goal with student. Monitor progress toward goal with student.
_____ Allow student to re-take/re-do tests or assignments.
_____ Assign homework on which student can be successful.
_____ Read tests to student.

At-Risk Contributing Factors

At-risk children and youth are individuals birth through twenty-one years of age who are unlikely to complete elementary and secondary school successfully and to acquire skills necessary for higher education and/or employment. Contributing factors include the following:
* Alcohol/drug abuse
* Cyclical poverty
* Delinquency/truancy
* Family abuse/neglect
* Family structure
* Handicapping condition
* Health condition
* Inadequate readiness/developmental delay
* Inappropriate instruction
* Inappropriate school curriculum
* Inappropriate school placement
* Limited English/non-English speaking
* Low self-esteem
* Pregnancy

1. Alcohol/drug abuse includes students who regularly use alcohol or drugs, or whose parents abuse these substances.

2. Cyclical poverty includes students who are raised in an environment where poverty is the recognized standard of living.

3. Delinquency/truancy includes students who have violated the law and/or those who have not been attending school on a regular basis.

4. Family abuse/neglect includes students who are physically, emotionally, or mentally abused; or those who are neglected by not receiving adequate food, clothing, shelter, or nurturing.

5. Family structure includes students who are raised in an unstable environment and do not receive sufficient nurturing and positive modeling.

6. Handicapping conditions includes students who have physical, mental, or emotional impairments.

7. Health conditions include students who suffer from any chronic illness.

8. Inadequate readiness skills/developmental delay includes students who are not developmentally ready to proceed to a higher level of instruction.

9. Inappropriate instruction includes students who are enrolled in classes where the teaching methods and techniques are not appropriate to foster their optimum learning.

10. Inappropriate school curriculum includes students who are enrolled in classes where the course content is not appropriate to promote their optimum learning.

11. Inappropriate school placement includes who are not placed in appropriate classes/programs to promote their learning.

12. Limited English/non-English speaking includes students who have limited English proficiency or none at all.

13. Low self-esteem includes students who have not developed a positive self-image.

14. Pregnancy includes students who are pregnant and/or are parenting.

Rewards
Teachers should work with students to identify rewards that are meaningful to the student and manageable for the teacher. According to Responsive Classroom guidelines, rewards like candy or stickers are avoided if possible in order to help students develop their own intrinsic responsibility. For students who are in need of intervention for behavior problems, it may be necessary to consider some extrinsic rewards in order to help the student make progress. The following is a list of possible rewards:
* Computer time
* Select a game
* Lunch with teacher or principal
* Positive call home to parents by student
* Positive note home
* Homework reduction or pass
* Sit with a friend
* Special classroom job
* Active or outside game
* Class celebration
* Healthy snack
* Special project on topic of interest
* Classroom/school recognition
* Educational video
* Headphones (appropriate music only) during seat work
* Work with younger students
* Office/teacher aide
* Custodial aide
* Field trip privileges